医疗机器人的伦理风险与治理探析

王硕, 文侃骁, 刘天语, 刘鸿宇. 医疗机器人的伦理风险与治理探析[J]. 医学与哲学, 2023, 44(23): 16-21. doi: 10.12014/j.issn.1002-0772.2023.23.04
引用本文: 王硕, 文侃骁, 刘天语, 刘鸿宇. 医疗机器人的伦理风险与治理探析[J]. 医学与哲学, 2023, 44(23): 16-21. doi: 10.12014/j.issn.1002-0772.2023.23.04
WANG Shuo, WEN Kan-xiao, LIU Tian-yu, . Ethical Risk and Governance Analysis of Medical Robots: Based on the 'Doctor-Patient-Robot' Analytical Framework[J]. Medicine & Philosophy, 2023, 44(23): 16-21. doi: 10.12014/j.issn.1002-0772.2023.23.04
Citation: WANG Shuo, WEN Kan-xiao, LIU Tian-yu, . Ethical Risk and Governance Analysis of Medical Robots: Based on the 'Doctor-Patient-Robot' Analytical Framework[J]. Medicine & Philosophy, 2023, 44(23): 16-21. doi: 10.12014/j.issn.1002-0772.2023.23.04

医疗机器人的伦理风险与治理探析——基于“医−患−机”分析框架

  • 基金项目:
    2021年国家社会科学基金重大项目(21ZDA017);2021年国家社会科学基金青年项目(21CZX057)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王硕(1999-),男,博士研究生,研究方向:科技伦理治理

    通讯作者: 刘鸿宇(1988-),男,博士,讲师,研究方向:科技伦理。E-mail:liuhongyu@njau.edu.cn
  • 中图分类号: R-05

Ethical Risk and Governance Analysis of Medical Robots: Based on the 'Doctor-Patient-Robot' Analytical Framework

More Information
  • 摘要
  • HTML全文
  • 图表
  • 参考文献
    • 基于“医−患−机”分析框架,医疗机器人的不断发展面临主体资质复杂、责任认定困难等责任伦理风险,医患关系重构、医患信任危机等医患伦理风险,数据质量与数据隐私等数据伦理风险,算法安全与算法偏见等算法伦理风险以及医疗资源分配正义风险。医疗机器人的伦理治理要以医学伦理和机器人伦理准则为依据,建立多元伦理治理体制,推动学术共同体的构建,探索自愿型、调节型与管制型等伦理治理工具的组合运用,加快医疗机器人伦理治理的法治化发展。
    • 加载中
    • 图 1  医疗机器人技术

      图 2  “医−患−机” 伦理风险分析框架

    • [1]

      中共中央办公厅, 国务院办公厅. 关于加强科技伦理治理的意见[N]. 人民日报, 2022-03-21(1).

      [2]

      王 豫, 樊瑜波. 医疗机器人: 产业未来新革命[M]. 北京: 机械工业出版社, 2020: 39-92.

      [3]

      王 豫, 徐 岩, 方 林. AI+医疗健康: 智能化医疗健康的应用与未来[M]. 北京: 机械工业出版社, 2021: 105-108.

      [4]

      贾计东, 张明路. 人机安全交互技术研究进展及发展趋势[J]. 机械工程学报, 2020, 56(3): 16-30.

      [5]

      刘文勇, 刘亚军. 2019年医用机器人研发热点回眸[J]. 科技导报, 2020, 38(1): 188-195.

      [6]

      宋国立, 韩建达, 赵忆文. 骨科手术机器人及其导航技术[J]. 科学通报, 2013, 58(S2): 8-19.

      [7]

      张学高, 周恭伟. 人工智能+医疗健康: 应用现状及未来发展概论[M]. 北京: 电子工业出版社, 2019: 177-179.

      [8]

      WENG Y H. Beyond robot ethics: On a legislative consortium for social robotics[J]. Adv Robot, 2010, 24(13): 1919-1926. doi: 10.1163/016918610X527220

      [9]

      LICHOCKI P, KAHN P H, BILLARD A. The ethical landscape of robotics[J]. IEEE Robot Automat Mag, 2011, 18(1): 39-50. doi: 10.1109/MRA.2011.940275

      [10]

      SAEIDI H, OPFERMANN J D, KAM M, et al. Autonomous robotic laparoscopic surgery for intestinal anastomosis[J]. Sci Robot, 2022, 7(62): eabj2908. doi: 10.1126/scirobotics.abj2908

      [11]

      ETZIONI A, ETZIONI O. Incorporating ethics into artificial intelligence[J]. J Ethics, 2017, 21(4): 403-418. doi: 10.1007/s10892-017-9252-2

      [12]

      BIGMAN Y E, WAYTZ A, ALTEROVITZ R, et al. Holding robots responsible: The elements of machine morality[J]. Trends Cogn Sci, 2019, 23(5): 365-368. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2019.02.008

      [13]

      LIN P, ABNEY K, BEKEY G. Robot ethics: Mapping the issues for a mechanized world[J]. Artif Intell, 2011, 175(5/6): 942-949.

      [14]

      杜严勇. 论机器人权利[J]. 哲学动态, 2015(8): 83-89.

      [15]

      杜严勇. 机器人伦理中的道德责任问题研究[J]. 科学学研究, 2017, 35(11): 1608-1613.

      [16]

      LOH J. Responsibility and robot ethics: A critical overview[J]. Philosophies, 2019, 4(4): 58. doi: 10.3390/philosophies4040058

      [17]

      SAND M, DURÁN J M, JONGSMA K R. Responsibility beyond design: Physicians' requirements for ethical medical AI[J]. Bioethics, 2022, 36(2): 162-169. doi: 10.1111/bioe.12887

      [18]

      GELHAUS P. Robot decisions: On the importance of virtuous judgment in clinical decision making[J]. J Eval Clin Pract, 2011, 17(5): 883-887. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2011.01720.x

      [19]

      ROYAKKERS L, VAN EST R. A literature review on new robotics: Automation from love to war[J]. Int J Soc Robot, 2015, 7(5): 549-570. doi: 10.1007/s12369-015-0295-x

      [20]

      PALMER A, SCHWAN D. Beneficent dehumanization: Employing artificial intelligence and carebots to mitigate shame-induced barriers to medical care[J]. Bioethics, 2022, 36(2): 187-193. doi: 10.1111/bioe.12986

      [21]

      GREBENSHCHIKOVA E G, TISHCHENKO P D. Bioethical challenges of artificial intelligence in surgery[J]. Clin Exp Surg Petrovsky J, 2021, 9(3): 7-15. doi: 10.33029/2308-1198-2021-9-3-7-15

      [22]

      BIGMAN Y E, GRAY K. People are averse to machines making moral decisions[J]. Cognition, 2018, 181: 21-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2018.08.003

      [23]

      李晓洁, 丛亚丽. 健康医疗大数据公平问题研究[J]. 自然辩证法通讯, 2021, 43(8): 8-13.

      [24]

      HAMET P, TREMBLAY J. Artificial intelligence in medicine[J]. Metabolism, 2017, 69S: S36-S40.

      [25]

      GEIS J R, BRADY A P, WU C C, et al. Ethics of artificial intelligence in radiology: Summary of the joint European and North American multisociety statement[J]. Can Assoc Radiol J, 2019, 70(4): 329-334. doi: 10.1016/j.carj.2019.08.010

      [26]

      FLORIDI L, TADDEO M. What is Data Ethics?[J]. Philos Transactions, 2016, 374(2083): 20160360.

      [27]

      FLORIDI L, COWLS J, BELTRAMETTI M, et al. AI4People: An ethical framework for a good AI society: Opportunities, risks, principles, and recommendations[J]. Mines Mach, 2018, 28(4): 689-707. doi: 10.1007/s11023-018-9482-5

      [28]

      NYRUP R, ROBINSON D. Explanatory pragmatism: A context-sensitive framework for explainable medical AI[J]. Ethics Inf Technol, 2022, 24(1): 13. doi: 10.1007/s10676-022-09632-3

      [29]

      KUNDU S. AI in medicine must be explainable[J]. Nat Med, 2021, 27(8): 1328. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01461-z

      [30]

      MARTIN K. Ethical implications and accountability of algorithms[J]. J Bus Ethics, 2019, 160(4): 835-850. doi: 10.1007/s10551-018-3921-3

      [31]

      HOWARD A, BORENSTEIN J. The ugly truth about ourselves and our robot creations: The problem of bias and social inequity[J]. Sci Eng Ethics, 2018, 24(5): 1521-1536. doi: 10.1007/s11948-017-9975-2

      [32]

      VAN WYNSBERGHE A. A method for integrating ethics into the design of robots[J]. Ind Robot, 2013, 40(5): 433-440. doi: 10.1108/IR-12-2012-451

      [33]

      OBERMEYER Z, POWERS B, VOGELI C, et al. Dissecting racial bias in an algorithm used to manage the health of populations[J]. Science, 2019, 366(6464): 447-453. doi: 10.1126/science.aax2342

      [34]

      GEIGER J D, HIRSCHL R B. Innovation in surgical technology and techniques: Challenges and ethical issues[J]. Semin Pediatr Surg, 2015, 24(3): 115-121. doi: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2015.02.008

      [35]

      王晓娣, 方旭红. 医疗机器人伦理风险探析[J]. 自然辩证法研究, 2018, 34(12): 64-69.

      [36]

      王 硕, 王 珏, 文侃骁. 国际精准医学伦理研究: 知识基础与热点前沿[J]. 自然辩证法通讯, 2022, 44(7): 83-93.

      [37]

      樊春良. 科技伦理治理的理论与实践[J]. 科学与社会, 2021, 11(4): 33-50.

      [38]

      MURPHY R, WOODS D D. Beyond Asimov: The three laws of responsible robotics[J]. IEEE Intell Syst, 2009, 24(4): 14-20. doi: 10.1109/MIS.2009.69

      [39]

      雷瑞鹏, 张 毅. 机器人学科技伦理治理问题探讨[J]. 自然辩证法研究, 2022, 38(4): 108-114.

      [40]

      GUNDERSEN T, BÆRØE K. The future ethics of artificial intelligence in medicine: Making sense of collaborative models[J]. Sci Eng Ethics, 2022, 28(2): 17. doi: 10.1007/s11948-022-00369-2

      [41]

      于 雪, 李 伦. 人工智能的设计伦理探析[J]. 科学与社会, 2020, 10(2): 75-88.

      [42]

      BENDEL O. Surgical, therapeutic, nursing and sex robots in machine and information ethics[M]//VAN RYSEWYK S, PONTIER M. Machine Medical Ethics. Cham: Springer, 2015: 17-32.

      [43]

      PERSAUD P, VARDE A S, WANG W. Can robots get some human rights?: A cross-disciplinary discussion[J]. J Robot, 2021, 2021: 5461703.

      [44]

      刘鸿宇. 机器人道德决策进路与模型研究[J]. 自然辩证法研究, 2021, 37(9): 28-34.

      [45]

      HAGENDORFF T. The ethics of AI ethics: An evaluation of guidelines[J]. Mines Mach, 2020, 30(1): 99-120. doi: 10.1007/s11023-020-09517-8

      [46]

      MCLENNAN S, FISKE A, TIGARD D, et al. Embedded ethics: A proposal for integrating ethics into the development of medical AI[J]. BMC Med Ethics, 2022, 23(1): 6. doi: 10.1186/s12910-022-00746-3

      [47]

      TZAFESTAS S. Roboethics: Fundamental concepts and future prospects[J]. Information, 2018, 9(6): 148. doi: 10.3390/info9060148

    (2)

    计量
    • 文章访问数:  393
    • PDF下载数:  643
    • 施引文献:  0
    出版历程
    收稿日期:  2022-12-21
    修回日期:  2023-04-05
    发布日期:  2023-12-05
    刊出日期:  2023-12-05

    目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回